ORRAA Invites Applications to Ocean Resilience Innovation Challenge

By 2050, an estimated 800 million people will be at risk from storm surge caused by extreme weather events, and more than five hundred and seventy low-lying coastal cities will face sea level rise of at least 0.5 metres. Coastal communities in developing countries, Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and other low-lying areas are likely to be most severely impacted, with women and girls especially hard hit.

There are many perceived barriers to investing in nature-based solutions for coastal protection. These include a lack of understanding of how investing in natural capital can provide a timely and productive return, and insufficient data and modelling capabilities for investors to quantify ocean-derived risks.
To help address the these and other problems, the Ocean Risk and Resilience Action Alliance (ORRAA) has launched an Ocean Resilience Innovation Challenge to surface financial and insurance innovations that build coastal resilience to ocean-derived risks.

To that end, the challenge is looking for innovative, scalable finance and insurance products that can drive investment in coastal natural capital and increase resilience while delivering a return on investment. The initiatives must also reduce ocean risk for the most vulnerable; include a focus on gender, equity and human rights; and protect biodiversity.

The challenge seeks proposals from individual organizations or consortiums from the public and private sectors, local civil society groups, international NGOs, and academia. Both experienced implementers as well as startups, hubs, and accelerators from the Global North and South are encouraged to apply. ORRAA will rigorously assess all entries to the challenge based on their viability, innovativeness, scale of impact, and equity. Winners will be selected by the end of the calendar year and announced in early 2021.

Selected projects will receive customized support aimed at maximizing their potential for impact, scalability and investability and will be connected to potential investors and partners from across the ORRAA network.

ORRAA will host two online information sessions on October 28, from 09:00-10:00 and 4:00-5:00 GMT, where applicants can meet members of the Challenge team and ask questions about any aspect of the competition. (Registration required.)

For additional details on eligibility and selection criteria, benefits for winners, application instructions and timelines, and registration links for the informational webinars, see the Ocean Risk and Resilience Action Alliance website.

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Collective Futures Fund Invites Applications to Survivor Safety and Securing Curing Democratic Futures Fund

The Collective Future Fund is a pooled fund established in 2019 to bring together donors, social justice movements, and survivors to shape a collective future free from sexual harassment and violence. Collective Future Fund prioritizes supporting efforts that are led by women of color who are survivors of gender-based violence. The fund envisions a world in which all women and girls — cisgender, transgender, and gender non-conforming — can live, learn, and work in safety and dignity.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed many of the disparities and inequities created by unjust policies and systems that have left communities vulnerable. Women of color are most often the first to respond and the last to be resourced, despite the undeniable force they play to fortify their communities around emergencies and disasters.

The Survivor Safety and Securing Democratic Futures Fund aims to support organizations through this time of uncertainty by equipping them with funds to mobilize their communities for survival. The purpose of Survivor Safety and Securing Democratic Futures grants is to channel resources to Black-, Indigenous-, women-of-color-, queer-, trans-, nonbinary and gender non-conforming people-of-color-led organizations that are advancing safety and support through direct relief and organizing support to frontline workers and survivors of gender-based and state violence during the multiple crises that have unfolded in 2020.

To be eligible for a Survivor Safety and Securing Democratic Futures grant, applicant organizations must be led by and serve women of color (i.e., Black, Indigenous, Latinx, Arab, Asian, and Pacific Islander; queer, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people of color, im/migrants and refugees, women of color with disabilities); have a core mission, goals, and activities that address ending gender-based violence and bring an orientation and analysis of racial and gender justice (intersectional analysis and strategy development) that center survivors and pushes for structural change, collective healing, and the root causes of violence; and have 501(c)(3) under U.S. tax law (for U.S.-based organizations) or have a 501(c)(3) fiscal sponsor. Non-U.S. based organizations can apply with a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) fiscal sponsor. Organizations (whether in the U.S. or outside the U.S.) that have neither 501(c)(3) status nor a fiscal sponsor with 501(c)(3) status can apply but must meet some additional requirements if invited to submit a full proposal.

Twelve-month grants of $50,000 will be awarded through the fund, with the grant period running from  December 2020 to December 2021.

Interested organizations are asked to fill out an organizational profile that includes basic information and two key questions through the Fluxx system. Applications are due November 9. After all submissions have been reviewed, a small group of applicants will be invited to submit a brief proposal that includes organizational and financial information along with four brief narrative questions.

For more information, including grant priorities, eligibility criteria, and a link to the application portal, see the Collective Futures Fund website.

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American Association of University Women Invites Applications for International Fellowship Program

Founded in 1881, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) is the nation’s leading voice promoting equity and education for women and girls.

To that end, the organization welcomes applications for its International Fellowships program. Originally designed to provide Latin American women opportunities for graduate and postgraduate study in the U.S., the International Fellowships program awarded its first fellowship in 1917. The program now includes women from around the world, and fellowships have been awarded to more than thirty-six women from over a hundred and fifty nations.

International Fellowships are awarded for full-time study or research at the graduate and postgraduate level in the United States to women who are not U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Fellowships of $18,000 will be awarded to recipients for master’s/first professional degree; fellowships of $20,000 will be awarded for doctoral programs; and fellowships of $30,000 will be awarded for postdoctoral programs.

Up to five International Fellowships for master’s/first professional degrees will be renewable for a second year.

To be eligible, applicants must be a citizen of a country other than the U.S. or possession of a non-immigrant visa if residing in the United States. Women who are currently (or expect to be during the fellowship year), a citizen or permanent of the U.S.,  or a dual citizen with the U.S. and another country are not eligible. Applicants must also hold an academic degree (earned in the U.S. or abroad) equivalent to a U.S. bachelor’s degree completed by November 15, 2020.

See the American Association of University Women website for complete program guidelines, application instructions, and information about previous awardees.

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American Foundation for Suicide Prevention Invites Applications From Distinguished Investigators

The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention raises awareness, funds scientific research, and provides resources and aid to those affected by suicide.

To advance this mission, AFSP welcomes applications for its Distinguished Investigator Innovation Grants program. Through the program, grants of up to $125,000 over two years will be awarded to investigators at the level of associate or full professor and an established record of research and publication in the area of suicide. Grants are intended to fund new directions and initiatives in suicide research rather than to supplement the applicant’s existing research. Investigators must have an established record of research and publication on suicide.

The foundation supports research in numerous disciplines, including psychiatry, medicine, psychology, genetics, epidemiology, neurobiology, sociology, nursing, social work, health services administration, and others. Grants are not intended to support the development or implementation of prevention programs, educational programs, treatments, or other interventions that do not have a significant research component.

Research grants program priority areas for 2020-22 include:

Diversity — Suicide prevention research related to underrepresented communities, health and mental health disparities and inequities, as well as researchers from underrepresented backgrounds proposing research focused on understanding and preventing suicide.

Evaluation of Technological Tools for Suicide Prevention — The application of implementation science methodology to evaluate technological tools available in order to expand access and overcome barriers for suicide prevention.

The AFSP also continues to maintain a strong interest in research related to survivors of suicide loss.

To be eligible, applicants must be affiliated with a not-for-profit institution or organization in the U.S. or abroad. Applications are not accepted from for-profit organizations or from federal or state government agencies.

See the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention website for complete program guidelines and application instructions.

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Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Invites Proposals for 2021 Clinical Scientist Development Award

The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation has issued a request for applications for its 2021 Clinical Scientist Development Award.

Through the program, up to eighteen grants of up to $495,000 over three years ($150,000 direct cost and $15,000 indirect costs per year) will be awarded to early-career physician scientists (MD, MD/PhD, DO, or foreign equivalent degree) in support of major clinical research that advances their transition to independent research funding.

The award is intended to enable physician-scientists at the assistant professor rank to 1) conduct an outstanding clinical research project; 2) enable research time protection to ease the tension between research and clinical responsibilities; and 3) facilitate development of strong mentorship relations. New this year instructors at any qualifying institution are eligible to apply, as are physician-scientists at the assistant professor level.

DDCF strongly encourages applications from groups that are underrepresented in medicine such as Blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, women, individuals with disabilities, and LGBTQ+ individuals, and/or who have overcome limitations in access to science afforded by privilege (e.g., coming from an environment with limited access to the knowledge, skills, and ability required to enroll in and graduate from a health professions school; or coming from a family with an annual income below a level based on low-income thresholds according to family size published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census).

To be eligible, applicants must have received an MD, DO, or foreign equivalent degree from an accredited institution; have a valid, active US medical license at the time of application, (applicants need not be a U.S. citizen); work at an academic institution in the U.S. that grants doctoral degrees; and be able to receive an award through an organization with 501(c)(3) Internal Revenue Service status.

Pre-proposals are due November 13. Upon review, selected applicants will be invited to submit a full proposal by March 12, 2021.

See the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation website for complete program guidelines and application instructions.

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Alpha-1 Foundation Invites LOIs for Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Founded in 1995 by three people diagnosed with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) Deficiency, a genetic condition that may result in serious lung disease in adults and/or liver disease at any age, the Alpha-1 Foundation is committed to finding a cure for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and to improving the lives of those affected worldwide.

To advance this mission, the foundation is inviting LOIs for its research grants program. Through the program, grants of up to $100,000 a year for up to two years will be awarded in support of research that contributes to the understanding of the basic biology of AAT expression and the pathogenesis/management of AAT Deficiency. Consideration also will be given to those projects that provide insight into the development of information that may contribute to new therapies for AAT Deficiency.

Letters of Intent are due November 13. Upon review, selected applicants will be invited to submit a full application by January 15, 2021.

See the Alpha-1 Foundation for complete program guidelines and application instructions.

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RWJF Invites Proposals for Public Policy Research to Advance Racial Equity, Justice

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation welcomes applications to its Policies for Action: Public Policy Research to Advance Racial Equity and Racial Justice program.

According to the foundation, achieving racial equity and justice in the United States requires a sustained, multipronged intersectional policy approach that addresses both the immediate social conditions leading to poor health outcomes and also the long-standing structures fostering such conditions. The goal of the Policies for Action call for proposals is to build the evidence base for national, state, and local policies that can advance racial equity in health and well-being in the United States.

Approximately $2 million will be awarded through this RFP, with the typical grant ranging up to $250,000 over up to twenty-four months.

Interdisciplinary research teams, community-partnered research teams, investigators from diverse backgrounds or with diverse life experiences (e.g., race, gender, class origin/first generation college, LGBTQI, disability, ethnicity, national origin), investigators from a wide range of disciplines, and first-time applicants for an RWJF grant are encouraged to apply.

To be eligible, applicant organizations must be based in the United States or one of its territories. Preference will be given to applicants that are either a public entity or a nonprofit organization that is tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and is not a private foundation or Type III supporting organization.

See the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website for complete program guidelines and application instructions.

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Community Opioid Intervention Pilot Project – Notice of Funding Opportunity

The Notice of Funding Opportunity for the Fiscal Year 2021 Community Opioid Intervention Pilot Project (COIPP), administered by the Office<https://www.ihs.gov/selfgovernance/advisorycommittee/> of Clinical and Preventive Services/Division of Behavioral Health, is now available and published in the Federal Register<https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2020/10/16/2020-22941/community-opioid-intervention-pilot-projects>. The deadline to apply is December 15, 2020.


The purpose of this IHS grant is to address the opioid crisis in AI/AN communities by developing and expanding community education and awareness of prevention, treatment and/or recovery activities for opioid misuse and opioid use disorder.  The intent is to increase knowledge and use of culturally appropriate interventions and to encourage an increased use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT).  This program will support Tribal and urban Indian communities in their effort to provide prevention, treatment, and recovery services to address the impact of the opioid crisis within their communities.  Each application for the COIPP will be required to address the following objectives:


  1. Increase public awareness and education about culturally-appropriate and family-centered opioid prevention, treatment, and recovery practices and programs in AI/AN communities.
  2. Create comprehensive support teams to strengthen and empower AI/AN families in addressing the opioid crisis in Tribal or urban Indian communities.
  3. Reduce unmet treatment needs and opioid overdose related deaths through the use of MAT.


Approximately 33 awards will be issued for a 3-year project period, with awards of up to $500,000 per year. Grant awards will be distributed as follows in the approximate numbers:


*   2 grants in each IHS Area (24 awards total).

*   6 set-aside grants for urban Indian organizations.

*   3 set-aside grants with Maternal & Child Health as the population of focus. One grant will be funded in each of the three highest priority IHS Areas (Alaska, Bemidji, and Billings).


For more information regarding the Fiscal Year 2021 IHS COIPP grant announcement, please contact the Alcohol and Substance Abuse Lead, JB Kinlacheeny via e-mail at JB.Kinlacheeny@ihs.gov<mailto:JB.Kinlacheeny@ihs.gov>, and visit the COIPP website at www.ihs.gov/asap/coipp<http://www.ihs.gov/asap/coipp>.


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Gerber Foundation Invites Applications for Pediatric Research

The Gerber Foundation is dedicated to enhancing the quality of life of infants and young children, with an emphasis on children under the age of three.

To that end, the foundation welcomes applications for research projects aimed at identifying solutions to common everyday issues and problems in the field of children’s health and nutrition. Of particular interest to the foundation are projects offering substantial promise of meaningful advances in prevention and treatment of disease and those with broad, general applicability.

Research program focus areas identified by the foundation include:

Pediatric Health — Projects that promote health and prevent or treat disease. Of particular interest are applied research projects focused on reducing the incidence of neonatal and early childhood illnesses, or those aimed at improving cognitive, social, and emotional aspects of development.

Pediatric Nutrition — Projects that assure adequate nutrition to infants and young children, including applied research that evaluates the provision of specific nutrients and their related outcomes.

Environmental Hazards (Nutrient Competitors) — Projects that document the impact of, or ameliorate the effects of, environmental hazards on the growth and development of infants and young children.

Major target areas for research include new diagnostic tools that might be more rapid, more specific, more sensitive, or less invasive; treatment regimens that are novel, less stressful or painful, more targeted, have fewer side effects, and/or provide optimal dosing; symptom relief; preventative measures; assessment of deficiencies or excesses (vitamins, minerals, drugs, etc.); and risk assessment tools or measures for environmental hazards, trauma, etc.

The foundation is interested in supporting projects that will result in “new” information, treatments, or tools that result in a change in practice; it rarely funds projects that are focused on sharing current information with parents or caregivers.

Eligible applicants must be tax exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. (Public governmental institutions such as universities are included in this definition.) With few exceptions, organizations must have their principal operations in the United States.

Novice researchers follow the same process as regular grants, are limited to no more than $20,000 in total funding, and need to apply under the guidance of a mentor.

Concept papers are due November 15. Upon review, selected applicants will be asked to submit a full proposal by February 15, 2021.

See the Gerber Foundation website for complete program guidelines, application instructions, and recently funded projects.

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Morris Animal Foundation Invites Proposals for Wildlife/Exotic Animal Research

The Morris Animal Foundation works to advance the health of animals by funding hypothesis-driven, humane animal health research projects with scientific merit and the potential for significant impact on animal health.

To that end, the foundation welcomes applications for its Wildlife/Exotics animal research program. Through the program, grants will be awarded in the following categories:

Established Investigator — Grants of up to $75,000 will be awarded in support of individuals and teams. All investigators are eligible to apply, although applicants should have a previous record of research and publication to be competitive.

First Award — Grants of up to $100,000 will be awarded to assist new faculty in establishing a successful research program. Eligible applicants must have a DVM and/or PhD and have a full-time, permanent position in a university, accredited zoo or conservation organization, or other non-academic equivalent.

Pilot Study — Grants of up to $10,800 will be awarded in support of innovative ideas with potential to accelerate discovery and advance MAF’s mission. All investigators are eligible to apply.

Fellowship Training Grant Proposals — Grants of up to $25,000 will be awarded to assist new investigators in launching a successful research career by providing salary support in a quality mentoring environment. Eligible applicants must have a DVM or PhD, be a full-time graduate student, or have a postdoctoral research appointment and not have completed more than two years of full-time postdoctoral research training on the proposed project.

See the Morris Animal Foundation website for complete program guidelines and application instructions.

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NIH Funding Opportunities

Funding Opportunities

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NIH Notices

Policy Notices

General Notices

Notice of Changes to Funding Opportunities

Notices of Intent to Publish

Notices of Special Interest

Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Administrative Supplements for Minor Alterations and Renovations to Advance Ongoing HIV/AIDS Research Projects Supported by the NIMHD RCMI Program or the NIGMS IDeA and NARCH Programs
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
Office of AIDS Research

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Achieving herd immunity to COVID-19 may not be a practical public health strategy

In response to COVID-19, affected countries have imposed a range of public health strategies to manage outbreaks. In a recent study funded by NIGMS, researchers use modeling techniques to assess the long-term potential of success using these approaches. Typically, these strategies have fallen into two categories – “suppression” and “mitigation.” Broadly speaking, the goal of the suppression strategy is to drastically reduce COVID-19 transmission rates and stop endogenous transmission in the target population, while the goal of the mitigation strategy is to achieve herd immunity by allowing the virus to spread through the population while mitigating disease burden as to not overwhelm the healthcare system. In practice, both strategies require the same types of control measures, social distancing and self-isolation, however the amount of time and intensity of the measures differ. To date, many countries with surges in COVID-19 outbreaks have employed a suppression strategy by mandating stringent social distancing measures which can have serious societal and economic repercussions. Several countries have started to consider or implement the mitigation strategy of establishing herd immunity to tackle the pandemic while lessening economic and societal impacts. In this study, the researchers sought to determine if and how countries could achieve herd immunity without overburdening the health care system, and to define the required control efforts needed.

The researchers used an age-stratified transmission model, with parameters to simulate COVID-19 viral transmission, including spread controlled by the self-isolation of symptomatic individuals and various levels of social distancing, in the United Kingdom (UK). The simulations indicated that without any control measures, the UK could have up to 410,000 deaths related to COVID-19, with 350,000 of those being from individuals over the age of 60. In contrast, if the suppression strategy was used, there were fewer deaths predicted with 62,000 in individuals over 60 years of age and 43,000 in those under 60. If self-isolation engagement is high (defined as at least 70% reduction in transmission), suppression can be achieved in two months regardless of social distancing measures, and potentially sooner if there are closings of school, work and social gathering places. When examining mitigation strategies that have the objective of building herd immunity, modeling results indicate that if social distancing is maintained at a fixed level, hospital capacity would have to significantly increase to prevent overwhelming the health care system. In order to achieve herd immunity in the UK with the current healthcare resources, it would be necessary to adjust levels of social distancing in real-time to ensure that the number of sick individuals is equal to but does not exceed hospital capacity. This delicate balance is to prevent the virus from spreading too quickly and overwhelming hospital resources, while not having the virus spreading too slowly, suppressing the epidemic.

In summary, consistent with previous observations and trends, these data confirmed that suppression of COVID-19 transmission is possible and feasible with prolonged (months) of social distancing. However, the modeling did not support achieving herd immunity as a practical endpoint since intervention levels would need to be carefully fine-tuned in an adaptive manner for an extended period of time. Such fine-tuning of social distancing renders this strategy impractical. Specifically, they found that for herd immunity to be achieved, social distancing must initially reduce the transmission rate to within a narrow range. Also, in order to compensate for susceptible population depletion, the extent of social distancing must be adaptive over time in a precise yet unfeasible way, and social distancing must be maintained for an extended period to ensure the healthcare system is not overwhelmed. It is important to note that there are still many unknowns about the nature, duration and effectiveness of COVID-19 immunity, and that the model used in this study assumes perfect long-lasting immunity. If COVID-19 immunity is not perfect, and there is a significant chance of reinfection, achieving herd immunity through widespread exposure is not likely. These modeling data, despite the unknowns, do provide information that can help to inform public health officials and other stakeholders with scenarios to help assess the consequences of alternative control strategies for controlling COVID-19 transmission, hospital burden, fatalities, and population-level immunity.

Brett TS, Rohani P. 2020. Transmission dynamics reveal the impracticality of COVID-19 herd immunity strategies. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008087117

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Smartphone applications based on ‘acceptance and commitment therapy’ are effective for smoking cessation

Digital interventions through smartphone applications are intended to improve treatment barriers for cessation of cigarette smoking, the leading cause of early death and disability worldwide. Despite the availability of nearly 500 English-language smartphone applications to date, only 5 randomized trials have tested the efficacy of some of these applications on abstinence rates. A study funded by NCI compared the efficacy of two smartphone applications- a more typical smoking cessation treatment model based on the United States Clinical Practice Guidelines (USCPG) versus an alternative treatment model based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

Researchers performed a blinded, parallel, 2-group randomized clinical trial to compare these two types of therapies with participants that had a desire to quit smoking (n = 2415, 70.4% women, 35.9% racial/ethnic minorities, mean age at enrollment, 38.2 years from all 50 US states). Participants were either assigned the QuitGuide smartphone application (n=1201), based on USCPG guidelines, or the iCanQuit smartphone applications (n=1214), based on ACT. Follow-up visits were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization.

QuitGuide, based on USCPG, motivates users by using reason, logic, and factual information, and teaches users how to avoid smoking triggers. iCanQuit, based on ACT, differs from this approach in that it emphasizes values and teaches acceptance of smoking triggers and skills to overcome smoking urges. For example, QuitGuide will teach users that the best approach to prevent relapse is to avoid high-risk situations and learn how to distract oneself during an urge. Alternatively, ACT will teach users to openly track urges and practice perspective-taking or value-driven activities such as writing a smoke-free vision statement.

At the study end date, 87.2% of participants remained in the study. After 12 months of use with either smartphone application, users of iCanQuit (ACT method) had 1.49 times higher odds of quitting smoking (28.5%) compared with users of QuitGuide (USCPG method; 21.0%) and were more likely be abstinent from all tobacco products altogether, including e-cigarettes. The significant increase in 7-day and 30-day abstinence for iCanQuit users was also found in earlier time points, three and six months into the study.

This study advances the evidence base for smartphone applications to aid smoking cessation with a much higher retention rate and longer follow-up period compared to prior smartphone application smoking cessation studies. The participants represented a broad demographic sample which increases the relevance of these findings to a diverse population. However, this study did not perform biochemical data collection to confirm abstinence in participants, but equal treatment between groups and the lack of face-to-face contact may minimize its impact on valid abstinence rates. In addition, this study may have been strengthened with the inclusion of a non-smartphone application treatment group in order to confirm the efficacy of this method to traditional, in-person methods. Overall, this study shows that smartphone applications can be effective in supporting smoking cessation and informs best practices for ongoing efforts to curb cigarette smoking.

Bricker JB, Watson NL, Mull KE, Sullivan BM, Heffner JL. 2020. Efficacy of Smartphone Applications for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4055

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Insomnia Symptoms in the Transition from Childhood to Adolescence

Sleep has garnered attention over the years for its relationship with health outcomes. Research supported by the NHLBI, NIMH, and NCATS sought to study the natural history of insomnia symptoms in children that were followed into adolescence to establish population-based rates to better understand the course of insomnia, as well as risk factors. In youth, falling asleep and/or staying asleep are one of the most common parent-reported insomnia symptoms; with a prevalence in childhood and adolescence of 20-25%. Prior research has yielded varying estimates of persistence rates of insomnia symptoms in youth that range from 0% over a 12-year period to 52% over a 4-year period. Due to this high variability in results, the researchers examined individual risk factors that contribute to the persistence and incidence of insomnia symptoms in youth.

In the present study the researchers followed a large, population-based, cohort sample of children into adolescence to evaluate the natural history of insomnia symptoms and a broad number of relevant clinically and objectively assessed risk factors. The sample was from the Penn State Child Cohort, which is a random, population-based sample of children (n = 700, 5-12 years at baseline), of whom 421 (53.9% male and 21.9% racial/ethnic minorities) were followed up as adolescents (12-23 years at follow-up). Subjects underwent polysomnography, clinical history, physical exam, and parent- and self-reported scales at baseline and follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a parent- or self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep.

The results showed that the persistence of childhood insomnia symptoms was 56% (95% CI = 46.5-65.4), with only 30.3% (95% CI = 21.5-39.0) fully remitting with the incidence of insomnia symptoms being 31.1% (95% CI = 25.9 – 36.3). Several factors were associated with a higher persistence or incidence of insomnia symptoms including, female sex, racial/ethnic minority, and low socioeconomic status as well as psychiatric, behavioral or neurological disorders, obesity, smoking, and clear preference for activity in the evening.

In summary, childhood insomnia symptoms are highly persistent, with full remission occurring in only a third of children in the transition to adolescence. Disparities in youth with insomnia occur early in childhood and are associated with sex, racial/ethnic background, and socioeconomic status. However, other factors such as mental and/or physical health, lifestyle, and circadian risk factors play a key role in the incidence and persistence of chronic childhood insomnia symptoms into adolescence. This study provides findings that may allow for an informed risk-assessment approach to determine and monitor the likelihood for incidence and persistence of insomnia symptoms in certain youths, such as in girls, racial/ethnic minorities, children of low socioeconomic status, those with psychiatric/behavioral, neurological or metabolic disorders, and evening circadian preference. Additionally, these data indicate that childhood insomnia symptoms should not be expected to resolve or remit over the developmental period and that they should become the focus of integrated behavioral health strategies and/or interventions in this population.

Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bourchtein E, Calhoun S, Puzino K, Snyder CK, He F, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler E. 2020. Natural History of Insomnia Symptoms in the Transition from Childhood to Adolescence: Population Rates, Health Disparities and Risk Factors. Sleep. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa187

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